We all know the feeling; we experience something terribly unpleasant, such as loss in of a friend or a family member, betrayal by a spouse or a close friend, significant loss of money. Are your senses as sharp as normal, or are you distracted, having difficulty analyzing situations and making decisions?
You are not alone. Even animals show what on the surface seems to be poor decision-making. Shock an animal with an electric current and it will tend to cower in a corner, trying to avoid not only a repeat of the shock, but any potentially negative stimulus. This kind of behavior is not maladptive. In fact, it is adaptive. How so? Because in a dangerous environment there is no time for the brain to analyze situations and judge their degree of risk. The animal that reacts defensively and fast will survive. The one that lingers to assess the situation is likely to perish.
Last Sunday on his show on CNN, Dr. Sanjay Gupta interviewed pediatrician, Dr. Robert Lustig, who made the assertion that sugar is toxic, and probably carcinogenic. This attention-grabbing statement had earned him a wide following on UTube. But is it true? Let’s examine the evidence.
How is sugar used in the cell?
Every cell in our body needs energy in order to survive and perform its functions. Our biochemistry has evolved over billions of years to extract energy from simple sugars, like glucose and fructose. I mentioned the evolutionary ancient-ness (is this a word?) for a reason. In the beginning (relax, I am not getting into the creation debate) the atmosphere was poor in oxygen. Yet cells had to extract energy from their nutrients. The solution? Extract energy from glucose without the participation of oxygen. This process is called anaerobic glycolysis, and even today, there are anaerobic bacteria that survive solely through glycolysis. This process nets a measly 2 ATP molecules (these are the molecules that store the energy necessary to drive chemical reactions in the cell), and two 3-carbon molecules of pyruvic acid.
Posted 3/27/12 on The American Family Physician Community Blog
In the March 15, 2011 issue of American Family Physician, Drs. Mark Graber, Robert Dachs, and Andrea Darby-Stewart analyzed an industry-funded trial that compared the effects of two daily doses of the Alzheimer’s disease drug donepezil (Aricept): a new 23 mg version and the existing 10 mg version that would soon lose its patent protection. Despite the trial authors’ finding that the higher dose of donepezil slightly improved cognitive outcomes, AFP Journal Club commentators determined that this difference was clinically unimportant, and was greatly outweighed by the higher frequency of adverse effects in patients using the higher dose:
First, the authors did four comparisons. Three were negative and only one was positive. And the one that was positive was only two points different on a 100-point scale. So, although this is statistically significant, it is clinically meaningless. There is no discernible benefit for the patient or caregivers. … Also, the drop-out rate in this study was an astounding 30 percent in the higher-dose group and 18 percent in the lower-dose group. Continue reading “The FDA Fails to Stop Deceptive Dementia Drug Advertising”→
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin that has antioxidant properties. It is present in vegetable oils (safflower, sunflower, corn, soybean), nuts (almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts), sunflower seeds, and green leafy vegetables (spinach, broccoli). A balanced diet provides all the vitamin E you need, but most people take supplements of the vitamin, on the assumption that if a little is good, more is better. Is it really so? Let’s examine the evidence.
“If you cannot measure it, you cannot improve it.” Lord Kelvin
“Asking science to explain life and vital matters is equivalent to asking a grammarian to explain poetry.” Nassim Nicholas Taleb
Of course the quantified self movement with its self-tracking, body hacking, and data-driven life started in San Francisco when Gary Wolf started the “Quantified Self” blog in 2007. By 2012, there were regular meetings in 50 cities and a European and American conference. Most of us do not keep track of our moods, our blood pressure, how many drinks we have, or our sleep patterns every day. Most of us probably prefer the Taleb to the Lord Kelvin quotation when it comes to living our daily lives. And yet there are an increasing number of early adopters who are dedicated members of the quantified self movement.
“They are an eclectic mix of early adopters, fitness freaks, technology evangelists, personal-development junkies, hackers, and patients suffering from a wide variety of health problems. What they share is a belief that gathering and analysing data about their everyday activities can help them improve their lives.”
I can already see the yawn forming: exercise again? we know it; it’s good for you, it makes you feel better because of endorphins, it makes your cardiovascular function better because it strengthens your cardiac muscle and improves your circulatory system, and it may even protect you from cancer. But have you thought about what could be the common denominator to the beneficial effects of exercise? If you did, and came up with a blank, I don’t blame you. Until recently we didn’t have a good answer, but now the outlines of an answer are forming. So here goes.